Parameter-only types, Round 2

UPDATE, 2023-07-19: The original of this post used the term “borrow type,” borrowed from Rust; but soon I decided that “parameter-only type” was a much better name, both because it’s more explanatory and because it avoids confusion with the Rust idea, which is after all fairly different. I added a note to that effect in May 2019, but it took me until July 2023 to actually re-edit this post.

I wasn’t planning to write another post about “parameter-only types” quite so soon as this, but my previous post on the subject generated some commentary, including this suggestion from Herb Sutter (with credit also given to Bjarne Stroustrup for prior observations on the subject):

Key concept, “generalized-parameter-declaration”: It has been independently rediscovered a number of times that a range-for loop variable is very much like a function parameter […] To this same set we should add lambda capture. Finally […] a catch-clause [declaration] also behaves as a parameter that binds to the thrown object […]

Arthur, I would add lambda-capture and catch-declaration to your list of string_view recommended uses for the above reasons.

Number one, I’m extremely flattered. Number two, you’re wrong. :)

Let’s take the catch-handler case first, because I actually considered that case and decided to tactfully ignore it when I was writing up that original post. Let’s open that can of worms!

Do not catch string_view

Here’s the kind of code we’re talking about:

try {
    throw std::string("hello");
} catch (const std::string& ex) {
    std::cout << ex << std::endl;

If you run this code, you’ll see it print “hello”, which should not be surprising at all. The const std::string& ex declaration (which C++ officially calls an exception declaration) behaves basically just like a function parameter in all respects: it syntactically looks like a function parameter, of course, but it also behaves like a function parameter in certain respects related to return value optimization (RVO), and also in the sense that when it is a reference, it refers to an object (the exception object) whose lifetime is greater than the scope of the variable ex itself. So in a very real sense, here, ex is of a “parameter-only type” just the same way that it would be if it were a function parameter.


Let’s try our “C++17 modernization” refactoring on the code above…

try {
    throw std::string("hello");
} catch (std::string_view ex) {
    std::cout << ex << std::endl;

This code no longer prints “hello” — instead, it terminates with an uncaught exception! This is because C++’s rules for catch-block selection do not match its rules for overload resolution; they are more like its rules for dynamic_cast. (I have a whole CppCon talk on that subject! (YouTube))

For the same reason, we will have a baaad time if we try to write this:

std::any a = std::make_any(std::string("hello"));
std::string s1 = std::any_cast<const std::string&>(a);  // OK
std::string s2 = std::any_cast<std::string_view>(a);  // Throws bad_any_cast

What we see in both of these examples is that — even though I stand by my assertion that native reference types such as const std::string& are parameter-only types — they are also native reference types, and this gives them special core-language superpowers that are not granted to arbitrary user-defined types such as std::string_view and std::reference_wrapper. In the first example we saw essentially that C++’s internal mechanism for selecting catch-block handlers understands catch-by-reference as a special case; and in the second example we saw essentially that typeid(T) == typeid(const T&).

So what does this little digression mean for our simple rule of thumb? Should we permit “parameter-only types” in catch-block exception declarations?

No. We should certainly permit and encourage catching by reference — there are horrible pitfalls for catching by anything-except-const& — but that’s about catching by native reference. It has absolutely nothing to do with parameter-only types as a general rule. If you are trying to catch a string_view, you are doing it wrong and your code will not work.

Don’t catch string_view.

Do not capture string_view

Okay, now what about lambda captures? This is an interesting case to me because… well, because I hadn’t considered it before! The observation being made by Bjarne and Herb is that another place we idiomatically use native references in C++ is in lambda-captures:

struct StringSet {
    vector<string> elements_;

    template<class F>
    void for_each_element(const F& f) const;

StringSet ss;
std::vector<std::string> result;
ss.for_each_element([&result](auto&& elt) {

Here we’ve got so many referencey things going on that I’ve omitted the body of for_each_element for clarity; check the previous post if you care. The important referencey thing that Bjarne and Herb are observing is that our lambda-function is capturing result by reference. If it had captured result by value, then the code wouldn’t do what we want. It is important and idiomatic that lambdas often capture things by reference.

In situations like this, where we’re passing a short-lived lambda as a callback to a “for-each”-style function (whether it’s this obviously named, or whether it’s a subtler “for-each” such as std::copy_if or std::sort), the most foolproof thing to do is to capture everything by reference: use a default capture of [&]. The only time it makes sense to capture anything by value is if you’re expecting your lambda to be stored somewhere or otherwise outlive its current context (for example, if you’re passing it to the constructor of std::thread or std::packaged_task).

The preceding paragraph should be tickling your brain. Short-lived… no ownership… function parameter… Yes, that’s absolutely correct: we probably have a parameter-only type going on here! But the parameter-only type is not the type of the lambda capture; the parameter-only type is the type of the callback lambda itself!

auto x = [&](auto&& elt) {

decltype(x), here, is a parameter-only type: it refers to things it doesn’t own, it makes sense only if it is short-lived, and (by an utter but happy coincidence) it doesn’t have an assignment operator.

The important takeaway here is that lambdas which capture [&] are parameter-only types, and should follow all the usual rules: don’t return such lambdas from functions, or capture them in long-lived variables, or otherwise allow them to escape the local context.

So that’s an interesting point (I hope)… but it’s not what Herb meant. He was suggesting that the capture itself — &result — was of the parameter-only type std::vector<int>&, and therefore I should relax my rule of thumb and permit parameter-only types to appear in lambda capture-lists.

Is this true? Should we ever write something like this?…

template<class Strings>
auto get_words_beginning_with(
    const Strings& lst, std::string_view prefix)
    std::vector<std::string> result;
    auto inserter = std::back_inserter(result);
        lst.begin(), lst.end(), inserter,
        [prefix](auto&& s) {
            return s.starts_with(prefix);
    return result;

Here we are capturing a copy of prefix — a string_view variable — in the lambda capture list of our filter. Is this good practice? Should we encourage this?

No, I don’t think we should.

Our lambda captures [prefix], when it should be capturing [&]. There is no reason to do anything “special” or “out of the ordinary” here; we are making a short-lived callback lambda for use with a “for-each”-style function, and so we should capture no more and no less than [&]. Capturing by value would make sense if we knew that the lambda was going to outlive the current scope… but if we knew that, then capturing the borrowed prefix by value would actually lead us straight into dangling-pointer-land!

Capturing a parameter-only type by value is usually a bug, and never helpful. Don’t do it.

In almost all cases, the correct thing to capture is [&]. If you are diverging from that, you are in expert territory and should tread carefully… and in that case you definitely shouldn’t be capturing parameter-only types!

Don’t capture string_view.


My previous post was muddled a little bit by my positing that native reference types were parameter-only types (which is true), but then my making a “rule of thumb” that claimed only two valid uses for “parameter-only types,” which implied that there were only two valid uses for native references as well (since native references are a proper subset of parameter-only types).

My rule of thumb remains the same:

  • Parameter-only types (other than native references) must appear only as function parameters and for-loop control variables.

With an exception for return types:

  • A function may have a parameter-only type as its return type, but if so, the function must be explicitly annotated as returning a potentially dangling reference. That is, the programmer must explicitly acknowledge responsibility for the annotated function’s correctness.

  • Regardless, if f is such a function, the result of f must not be stored into any named variable except a function parameter or for-loop control variable. For example, auto x = f() must still be diagnosed as a violation.

…Now, when I disallow auto x = f(), you might think that this is also problematic for native references. That’s true! See, native reference types have a built-in operator auto that happens to return T instead of the more “natural” T&. Native references also have an assignment operator; remember that in the previous post I claimed that parameter-only types generally don’t need assignment operators. But these “warts” aren’t really warts; they’re just because C++ native references are not just parameter-only types; they’re also an important part of the core language and have several deeply magical features.

So here are my belated caveats for native reference types in particular:

  • When catching exceptions, always catch by const T&. (Never catch string_view or any other non-magical view type!)

  • Lambdas should capture exactly [&] unless that would be semantically incorrect; in which case it is okay to capture any value type by value. (Never capture string_view, or any other non-magical view type, by value!)

Posted 2018-03-28