Default function arguments are the devil

If you frequently talk with me about C++, you have undoubtedly heard me say:

Default function arguments are the devil.

My position opposes the historical (early-1990s) style of the STL, of course; but I was recently alerted that it’s also in direct conflict with the (2010s) C++ Core Guidelines, specifically rule F.51. Since this conflict might, if unaddressed, lead people to think I’m wrong, I’d better address it. ;)

I’ll present a short hypothesis on the evolution of default function arguments as a language feature (why do they exist? what problems did they solve in the 1990s?), and then present all the ways I can think of for how they cause problems.

Why do default function arguments exist?

Even the language’s creator considered default function arguments to be old-fashioned… 26 years ago!

Given general function overloading, default arguments are logically redundant and at best a minor notational convenience. However, C with Classes had default argument lists for years before general overloading became available in C++.

—Bjarne Stroustrup, D&E (1994), section 2.12.2

However, I think there are at least two reasons that the default-function-argument style did not go extinct alongside “C with Classes” but rather survived into the late 1990s and beyond:

  • Compilers in the 1990s were bad at inlining.

  • C++98 did not have delegating constructors.

First, consider:

int nexta(int x, int y);
inline int nexta(int x) { return nexta(x, 1); }

int nextb(int x, int y = 1);

Since compilers’ inlining heuristics were bad, there was a very real possibility that a call to nexta(42) would end up executing two call instructions, pushing two stack frames, and so on. Also, the compiler might choose to generate out-of-line code for nexta(int) and thus bloat your executable size — more worrisome on that decade’s smaller machines. In this decade, even on smaller machines, we have smarter compilers: I do not worry that simple inline functions like this would cause noticeably bigger codegen.

Second, consider that if you wanted to write an overload set of constructors in C++98, you’d have to do something like this:

// Much repeated initialization code
struct Widget {
    std::string data_;

    explicit Widget(int size) : data_(size) {
        std::iota(data_.begin(), data_.end(), 'A');
    explicit Widget(int size, char start) : data_(size) {
        std::iota(data_.begin(), data_.end(), start);

and the only way to factor out the repeated code (without default function arguments) would be to move to a domesticated form of “two-phase initialization,” like this:

// Two-phase initialization
struct Widget {
    std::string data_;

    explicit Widget(int size) { init(size, 'A'); }
    explicit Widget(int size, char start) { init(size, start); }
    void init(int size, int start) {
        data_ = std::string(size);
        std::iota(data_.begin(), data_.end(), start);

(This solution additionally suffers from our first problem: poor inlining heuristics in old compilers.) C++98’s solution was to use default function arguments to eliminate repeated code without relying on two-phase initialization.

// C++98's solution: default function arguments
struct Widget {
    std::string data_;

    explicit Widget(int size, char start = 'A') : data_(size) {
        std::iota(data_.begin(), data_.end(), start);

But in C++11 and later, we have delegating constructors. We can write this code straightforwardly, turning init back into a proper constructor. Compare the following C++11 code with the two-phase initialization code from above.

// C++11's solution: delegating constructors
struct Widget {
    std::string data_;

    explicit Widget(int size) : Widget(size, 'A') {}
    explicit Widget(int size, int start) : data_(size) {
        std::iota(data_.begin(), data_.end(), start);

With today’s delegating constructors and good inliners, there’s no longer any technical reason to use default function arguments. If we were designing C++ from scratch today, we probably wouldn’t feel any need to include them at all.

Now for the various downsides of default function arguments. As Wikipedia says, “This is a dynamic list. You can help by adding to it.”

Default function arguments produce convoluted overload sets

Here’s my go-to example, which is actually extracted from some teaching material that recommends the use of default function arguments! Our goal is to write a print_square function that prints an n-by-n square filled with a specific ASCII character. If n is missing, default it to 10. If fill is missing, default it to +.

Students often try to mechanically translate this English description into C++ code, like this:

// square.h
void print_square(int n = 10, char fill = '+');

// square.cpp
void print_square(int n, char fill) {
    auto row = std::string(n, fill);
    for (int i=0; i < n; ++i)
        std::cout << row << "\n";

Then they run the unit tests:

print_square(5, '*');  // OK
print_square(5);       // OK, acts like (5, '+')
print_square();        // OK, acts like (10, '+')
print_square('*');     // Oh no!!

The fourth line above acts like print_square('*', '+') — it prints a 42-by-42 square of + characters! We could “easily” fix this bug without giving up our default function arguments, by adding an additional overload:

// square.h
void print_square(int n = 10, char fill = '+');
inline void print_square(char fill) { return print_square(10, fill); }

Or alternatively:

// square.h
void print_square(int n, char fill = '+');
inline void print_square(char fill = '+') { return print_square(10, fill); }

However, I assert that neither of these solutions is clear. Making any kind of modification to the signatures in this overload set will require very careful auditing, to make sure you’re not introducing an ambiguity (one signature with two possible candidates) or accepting a signature that shouldn’t be accepted (one candidate with multiple signatures, some of which are unwanted). We are creating a puzzle for our reader… and for ourselves.

Do the two alternative solutions above provide exactly the same set of signatures? How long did it take to convince yourself of your answer?

The most maintainable, least “puzzley” approach is simply to provide one overload per signature, each signature on a line by itself.

// square.h
void print_square(int n, char fill);
inline void print_square(int n) { print_square(n, '+'); }
inline void print_square(char fill) { print_square(10, fill); }
inline void print_square() { print_square(10, '+'); }

This code is trivially correct by inspection, and therefore easy to maintain and extend.

One name, varied functionalities

Nir Friedman points out that our refactoring of print_square shouldn’t stop there. We have succeeded in unpuzzling our API from the maintainer’s point of view; but now let’s consider the puzzle from the client’s point of view. The client programmer doesn’t want a “puzzling” print_square(x) that treats x sometimes as a side length and sometimes as a fill character! The client programmer wants an API that looks more like this:

// square.h
void print_square(int n, char fill);
inline void print_square_with_side(int n) { print_square(n, '+'); }
inline void print_square_with_fill(char fill) { print_square(10, fill); }
inline void print_default_square() { print_square(10, '+'); }

In fact, maybe the client programmer doesn’t even need some of those functionalities at all, and we can just eliminate those unused functions from our code. See “Refactoring with =delete (2022-11-11) and “API design advice from Anakin and Obi-Wan” (2022-12-17).

Reusing the same name for multiple distinct functionalities is a trap. It’s still possible to fall into that trap without using default arguments. But it isn’t possible to use default arguments without falling into that trap. The next section shows another example:

The “boolean parameter tarpit”

We’ve all seen code like this, right?

void doTask(Task task, std::seconds timeout, bool detach = false,
            bool captureStdout = false, bool captureStderr = false);

doTask(task1, 100s);
doTask(task1, 3600s, true);
doTask(task2, 3600s, false, true, false);
doTask(task2, 6000s, true, true);
doTask(task1, 200s, false, true, true);

Refactoring this code to use “one overload per signature” won’t magically make it good code. But as we refactor, we may find some bugs anyway:

void doTask(Task task, std::seconds timeout);
void doTask(Task task, std::seconds timeout, bool detach);
void doTask(Task task, std::seconds timeout, bool detach,
            bool captureStdout, bool captureStderr);

doTask(task2, 6000, true, true);  // ERROR: no longer compiles!

Did the original programmer of this line know that this was performing the equivalent of doTask(task2, 6000, true, true, false)? Or did they accidentally omit the detach parameter?

Orthogonally, suppose we leave the default function arguments in place, and then we get a feature request to add another parameter: bool shell = false. But it turns out that everyone who calls doTask(task1) really needs that parameter to be true. How easy is the refactor?

doTask(task1, 100s); doTask(task1, 100s, false, false, false, true);
doTask(task1, 3600s, true); doTask(task1, 3600s, true, false, false, true);
doTask(task1, 200s, false, true, true); doTask(task1, 200s, false, true, true, true);

Adding one parameter to the very end of a call requires spelling out all of the preceding arguments, just as if they had no default values. So the default values are no help to us; it’s almost like they weren’t there at all! In fact, this refactoring would have been much easier if all five of the parameters had been mandatory; the ability to omit trailing parameters actually makes manual refactoring harder.

Conclusion: Default function arguments do not directly cause boolean parameter tarpits, but they make their pernicious effects worse. Boolean tarpits that don’t use default arguments are easier to deal with than boolean tarpits that do use default arguments.

Fiddly redeclaration rules

A default function argument appears syntactically in a function declaration, but the default argument itself behaves like a definition, in that there must be only one of it per translation unit.

int f(int x = 1);
int f(int x = 1);  // ERROR: redefinition of default argument

Even in the function definition, you aren’t allowed to repeat the default argument’s value. This means that a piece of the function’s interface is invisible at the site of the function’s implementation. I frequently see workarounds such as this:

int f(int x/*=1*/) {
    return x;

But, like any code comment, this /*=1*/ could easily get out of sync with reality.

int f(int x = 2);

int f(int x/*=1*/) {   // OOPS!
    return x;

Default function arguments can’t depend on other arguments

void draw_rectangle(int width, int height = width);  // ERROR

If you want this effect, you must use one overload per signature.

void draw_rectangle(int width, int height);
inline void draw_rectangle(int width) { draw_rectangle(width, width); }

Surprising function-pointer type

Consider the following snippets (Godbolt):

int nexta(int x, int y) { return x+y; }
int nexta(int x) { return nexta(x, 1); }

int nextb(int x, int y = 1) { return x+y; }

auto nextc = [](int x, int y = 1) { return x+y; };

assert(nexta(10) == 11);
assert(nextb(10) == 11);
assert(nextc(10) == 11);

int (*pfa)(int) = nexta;  // OK
int (*pfb)(int) = nextb;  // ERROR!
int (*pfc)(int) = nextc;  // ERROR!

nextb is callable with only one argument; but that doesn’t make it actually be a function of only one argument. This pitfall combines with “Hidden reinterpret_casts” (2020-01-22) to produce a startling result:

using FP = int(*)(int);
printf("%d\n", FP(nexta)(10));   // OK, works fine
printf("%d\n", FP(nextb)(10));   // garbage at runtime
printf("%d\n", FP(nextc)(10));   // nice compile-time error

In fairness, I must point out that nexta and nextc reverse their roles when we look at std::function. (But nextb is still the worst of all worlds.)

std::function<int(int)> fa = nexta;  // ERROR, ambiguous
std::function<int(int)> fb = nextb;  // ERROR!
std::function<int(int)> fc = nextc;  // OK

Interaction with inherited functions

I’ve never seen this pitfall in real code… maybe because I never use default arguments and always use the Non-Virtual Interface idiom. But it’s so well-known that the C++ Core Guidelines devote rule C.140 to it. Godbolt:

struct Cat {
    virtual void speak(const char *s = "meow")
        { printf("%s.\n", s); }
struct Tiger : public Cat {
    void speak(const char *s = "roar") override
        { printf("%s!!\n", s); }

Cat c;       c.speak();  // "meow."
Tiger t;     t.speak();  // "roar!!"
Cat *p = &t; p->speak(); // "meow!!"

Notice that if we call Tiger::speak through the pointer-to-base p, we get a weird hybrid of Cat and Tiger behavior. This is absolutely not what we want under any circumstances. (The NVI idiom would protect us from this pitfall, because in NVI we would never be calling a virtual method directly in the first place.)

Worse, C++ forces us to repeat the default argument’s value at each level of the hierarchy:

struct Cat {
    virtual void speak(const char *s = "meow")
        { printf("%s.\n", s); }
struct Tiger : public Cat {
    // Can I piggyback on Cat's default argument here? Nope!
    void speak(const char *s) override
        { printf("%s!!\n", s); }

Tiger t;  t.speak();  // ERROR! Tiger::speak needs an argument

If we use default function arguments in a polymorphic hierarchy, we must repeat ourselves more often, not less.

For the record, the NVI solution to this problem would be:

struct Cat {
    void speak() { do_speak(do_default()); }
    void speak(const char *p) { do_speak(p); }
    virtual const char *do_default()
        { return "meow"; }
    virtual void do_speak(const char *s)
        { printf("%s.\n", s); }
class Tiger : public Cat {
    const char *do_default() override
        { return "roar"; }
    void do_speak(const char *s) override
        { printf("%s!!\n", s); }

Cat c;       c.speak();  // "meow."
Tiger t;     t.speak();  // "roar!!"
Cat *p = &t; p->speak(); // "roar!!"

And if you’re wondering whether void speak(const char *p = do_default()) would work… no, it doesn’t.

Side effects and name lookup on default arguments can be confusing

Default arguments are defined in one place but evaluated in another. This can lead to confusion about aspects of C++ that are somewhere in the middle, such as name lookup, access control, and template instantiation.

int v = 0;
void f(int x = ++v);

f() causes an increment to v, but f(0) does not.

template<class T>
void ft(T x = T());

ft<X>() requires that X be default-constructible, but ft<X>(x) does not.

template<class T>
void ft2(int x = T::member());

ft2<X>() requires that T::member() exist and be accessible in the context of ft2 (not in the caller’s context); but ft<X>(0) does not.

And in this complex example, we see that while default arguments may be evaluated at the call-site, their name lookup happens via lookup (or in the case of templates, two-phase lookup) in the callee’s context.

The reason I find all of these examples confusing (to varying degrees) is that default function arguments exist in a gray area — they kinda belong to the scope of the callee function, but they kinda seem to belong to the scope of its caller, too (since that’s where they’re evaluated). Contrariwise, when I write

template<class T> void ft2(int x);
template<class T> void ft2() { return ft2<T>(T::member()); }

I find it easy to remember what rules to follow for name lookup, access control, “when side effects happen,” and so on, because they’re the usual lexical-scope-based rules that we all use in C++ every day.

Conflation of explicit and non-explicit constructor signatures

Another of my pet guidelines is:

All constructors should be explicit. (Except for move and copy, because C++ makes implicit copies all over the place.)

So for example I would write

template<class T, class Comparator, class Container>
class priority_queue {
    explicit priority_queue() : priority_queue(Compare(), Container()) {}
    explicit priority_queue(const Compare& p) : priority_queue(p, Container()) {}
    explicit priority_queue(const Compare&, const Container&);
    explicit priority_queue(const Compare&, Container&&);

The actual STL follows the guideline “All single-argument constructors should be explicit, and all zero-argument and multi-argument constructors should be non-explicit.” (An implicit multi-argument constructor can be used to do initialization from a braced sequence, like how std::pair<int,char> can be constructed from return {1, 'x'}. Implicit conversion like this is good for sequence-like vocabulary types like tuple, but I claim it’s surprising when {std::less<>(), myVec} is quietly interpreted as a priority_queue object! Anyway…) The STL wants to write

template<class T, class Comparator, class Container>
class priority_queue {
    priority_queue() : priority_queue(Compare(), Container()) {}
    explicit priority_queue(const Compare& p) : priority_queue(p, Container()) {}
    priority_queue(const Compare&, Container&&);
    priority_queue(const Compare&, const Container&);

Unfortunately, C++11 specified this overload set in terms of default function arguments, like this:

template<class T, class Comparator, class Container>
class priority_queue {
    explicit priority_queue(const Compare& = Compare(), Container&& = Container());
    priority_queue(const Compare&, const Container&);

Leaving off the explicit keyword would have created an implicit conversion from Compare to priority_queue, which would have been bad; but adding explicit accidentally made the default constructor and the two-argument constructor explicit, which is also bad!

The Committee’s solution was to eliminate the default function arguments and use a full overload set instead, with one overload per function signature. A lot of paper was expended on this migration. Alisdair Meredith’s P1374 (November 2018) contains a detailed list of work in this area. For the specific example of std::priority_queue, see Tim Song’s P0935 (February 2018).

Again, you can work around this issue by carefully crafting your overload sets, still using default function arguments where it’s safe and avoiding them where needed. But recognize that by doing that, you’re creating a needless puzzle for your code’s maintainer!

Conflation of noexcept and non-noexcept function signatures

Consider std::shared_ptr<T>::reset(). Before you look at that cppreference page, ask yourself: Could we declare it like this?

void reset(T *ptr = nullptr);

It turns out to be preferable to declare it as an overload set — one overload per signature — because the first of those signatures can be noexcept!

void reset() noexcept;
void reset(T *ptr);

The one-argument version of reset needs to allocate a control block, which can fail and throw bad_alloc. The zero-argument version never allocates and thus never throws. So, even though sp.reset() is semantically equivalent to sp.reset((T*)nullptr), there is still a salient difference between them at the language level which causes the STL to prefer separate overloads instead of default function arguments.

The answer to “can I do this?” is always no

auto lam = [](auto x = 1) { return x; };

Does lam() call lam(1)? Nope, it fails type deduction.

struct S {
    int default_value();
    void f(int x = default_value());

Nope! (See above.)

int f(int x = 1, int y);
int debugf(const char *fmt, ..., int y = 1);

Of course not!

MyType operator+(MyType x, MyType y = {});

No way!

Buggy compilers

I was surprised to learn there are still compiler bugs in such an old (1980s-era) feature. But in 2022 I learned about a longstanding bug in both GCC (#96645) and Clang (#36032):

struct A {
    struct B {
        int i = 42;
    static void f(B b = B());

Both GCC and Clang reject this valid code, seemingly because they resist generating an implicitly declared default constructor before the end of an enclosing class — even when the constructor is B’s but the enclosing class is A! Work around this default-argument bug by eliminating default arguments: every vendor is happy with the following code, and it’s clearer to boot.

struct A {
    struct B {
        int i = 42;
    static void f() { f(B()); }
    static void f(B b);

What about std::source_location?

C++20 gives students a new reason to ask about default function arguments: std::source_location. See “How to replace __FILE__ with source_location in a logging macro” (2020-02-12). std::source_location::current() is designed to piggyback on default arguments, via a special compiler-magic mechanism that is not available to user-defined types:

void f(int x, std::source_location loc = std::source_location::current()) {
    printf("%s %"PRIdLEAST32"\n", loc.file_name(), loc.line());

However, because of the poor design decision to rely on a default function argument:

  • The source_location argument must go in the trailing position…

  • which means that C++ can never add anything else that works this way: source_location has laid permanent claim to the real estate at the end of a function argument list.

  • That defaulted function parameter is “hijackable” by the caller, just like enable_if template parameters before C++20’s invention of the requires keyword.

  • Overloaded operators can’t use it, because they can’t take default function arguments.

  • Varargs functions like printf can’t use it.

  • Variadic templates like make_unique can’t use it (as far as I can tell — am I wrong?).

In short, it’s of very limited usefulness, it abuses an already pitfall-heavy mechanism, and generally I wouldn’t use it.

The std::source_location type itself is pretty neat. There was lots of discussion about how to make it perform efficiently. (It’s not just a tuple of strings and ints!) But the chosen idiom for getting at source_location::current() is silly and hard to use — much harder than just continuing to use __FILE__ and __LINE__. And the primary thing that makes it silly and hard to use is that it relies on default function arguments!

I see the experience of std::source_location as further evidence that default function arguments are the devil.

What about default template arguments?

I have no complaints about default template arguments. The STL uses them to very good effect, for things like allocator and comparator parameters. Templates are a vastly different animal from functions. In particular, C++ doesn’t let us overload templates, so default template arguments are our only tool if we want to make set<T> and set<T, std::greater<T>> both valid.

I do intensely disapprove of CTAD, so ever since C++17 I’ve had to say “be careful when defaulting template parameters that you don’t accidentally introduce a CTAD issue.” See “Contra P0339” (2019-07-02) for one example. But that’s a CTAD problem, not a default-template-argument problem — just avoid CTAD and you’ll be fine.


  • Default function arguments are the devil.

  • Any time you are considering using a default function argument, it’s because you’re crafting an overload set.

  • Figure out the exact signatures you mean to provide, and write each of these signatures as a separate function declaration.

  • Don’t cram multiple signatures into one declaration.

  • Don’t create puzzles for your code’s maintainer.

Posted 2020-04-18