# Observations on Castlequest’s code

Holtzman and Kershenblatt’s Castlequest was inspired by Crowther and Woods’ Adventure, and has a lot in common with it:

• cave-based treasure hunt with fantasy themes
• magic words of teleportation
• the “master game” and Last Lousy Point
• lamp, key(s), food, bottle
• wandering random-chance-of-death monsters; THROW AXE
• two liquids to fill the bottle with
• long and short room descriptions; BRIEF
• navigation by compass points, plus U/D/IN/OUT; BACK
• mazes of twisty passages

But since Holtzman had never seen Adventure’s code, some of the behind-the-scenes mechanisms are pretty different. Let’s take a look at a few key differences between Adventure’s code and Castlequest’s.

## Parser structure

Adventure’s grammar consists of four kinds of words:

• Motion words, like NORTH and SOUTH
• Object words, like LAMP
• Action words, like TAKE and DROP
• Message words, like HELP and SWIM

I said motion words were like NORTH and SOUTH, but actually those boring compass directions arrived very late in Adventure’s gestation. Adventure’s first motion words were ROAD, ENTER, UPSTREAM, DOWNSTREAM, FOREST. So you could stand outside the building and say ENTER to go inside, or ROAD to follow the road instead.

Each object word identifies a specific object in the game. For example, the word LAMP identifies the lamp (object number 2 in the game; number 1 is the keys).

Action words may be transitive (FEED) or intransitive (QUIT).

Message words, like HELP and INFO, are handled essentially outside of the game proper; when the game sees one of these words in the command, it simply prints that word’s associated hard-coded message and immediately returns to prompting for input. Besides HELP and INFO, other message words in Adventure include DIG (“Digging without a shovel is quite impractical”), SESAME (“Good try, but that is an old worn-out magic word”), MIST, and TREES.

Commands consist of one or two words, of any kinds. Motion words take precedence over action or object words, so that when you say JUMP FISSURE the object word FISSURE is dropped, yielding JUMP; and when you say WALK WEST the action word WALK is dropped, yielding WEST. (There are also a few special cases, such as that when the first word is the motion word ENTER, we’ll just look at the second word; this makes ENTER TUNNEL a synonym for TUNNEL.)

Word order isn’t important: Adventure treats AXE GET and GET AXE as equally grammatical. This is convenient when the user types just AXE: the game will ask “What do you want to do with the axe?” and then if you answer GET, the game will concatenate the two commands (AXE GET) and ta-da, it’s a valid command! But if you answer with some other command, such as NORTH, the game will see AXE NORTH and the motion word NORTH will take precedence.

### Grammar in Castlequest

Castlequest’s grammar consists of two kinds of words:

• Verbs
• Nouns

Verbs can be transitive (FEED) or intransitive (UP). Verbs 1 through 10 are the compass directions: N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW, U, D. (Then TAKE, DROP; IN, OUT; ATTACK, KILL, THROW, LOAD, and SHOOT. Compare to Adventure’s first action words: CARRY, DROP, SAY, UNLOCK, NOTHING(!), LOCK, LIGHT, EXTINGUISH, WAVE, CALM, WALK, and then ATTACK.)

Commands consist of a verb, optionally followed by a noun. The parser considers AXE TAKE to be ungrammatical nonsense. In fact, it considers AXE alone to be ungrammatical nonsense, because the string of characters AXE is not recognized as a verb. (The parser never tries to parse your first word as a noun.)

So when you see Castlequest say “Do WHAT with the axe??”, it’s because you said FROTZ AXE or something — it recognizes AXE because it’s in noun position, but doesn’t recognize your first word as any known verb. And Castlequest is not equipped to handle a clipped reply like TAKE — it’ll parse that as a brand-new command, and come back with “I don’t see that here” (where that refers to the non-existent noun in your one-word command — indeed object zero isn’t here).

Castlequest has no distinction between action and message words. This makes it more expensive for Castlequest to add words like SWIM and FUCK, but also makes them as customizable as “action” verbs like READ and UNTIE. For example, SWIM prints “I hate to tell you this, but I can’t swim” in only four locations; everywhere else gives a bland error message. And FUCK gives two different messages, depending on whether you used it transitively or intransitively.

By the way, in both Adventure and Castlequest, words can have multiple accepted spellings; for example, the spellings WEST and W both mean motion word 44 in Adventure and both mean verb 7 in Castlequest. These spellings can look arbitrary different to human eyes. For example, in Castlequest both BREAK and CHOP translate to verb 37; in Adventure both ROAD and HILL translate to motion word 2. Adventure makes ATTACK and KILL synonymous; Castlequest makes them two separate verbs.

## The travel table

Adventure’s vocabulary has more motion words than any other kind. Getting around the game world is the main point of the parser engine, because it was (originally) the main point of Crowther’s game. The game world is a collection of rooms; you navigate between rooms using motion words. The fact that you can also get lamps, water plants, and so on is almost an afterthought grafted onto this navigation engine.

So Adventure has this thing called the “travel table.” It’s a massive data file encoded like this:

1  2   2 44 29
1  3   3 12 19 43
1  4   5 13 14 46 30
1  5   6 45 43
1  8   63
2  1   2 12 7 43 45 30
2  5   6 45 46


This says that to get from room 1 (end of road) to room 2 (hill in road), you can enter motion word 2 (ROAD/HILL), 44 (W), or 29 (UP). To get from room 1 to room 3 (inside building), you can use 3 (ENTER), 12 (HOUSE), 19 (IN), or 43 (E). Motion words 5, 13, 14, 46, 30 (DOWNSTREAM, GULLY, STREAM, S, D) take you to room 4 (valley). Motion words 6, 45, 43 (FOREST, N, E) take you to room 5 (forest). Finally, motion word 63 (DEPRESSION) takes you from room 1 to room 8 (outside grate). The travel table continues with six ways to get from room 2 to room 1… and so on. As a historical note, observe again that the compass directions were added late — they have pretty high numbers, and they appear at the tails of these lines, which were probably accreted in chronological order. (Crowther decided that the road led WEST from the building before Woods decided that it should also lead UP.)

Notice the richness of this format. It’s easy to add a new motion word; by default it will do nothing in every room, except those where you add it to the travel table. This allowed Crowther to add simple navigational shortcuts, like BUILDING to move back to the starting room from pretty much anywhere above ground, and of course also “magic words” like XYZZY. These shortcuts are useful in speed-running; why type W W W W W to get from below the grate to the top of small pit, when you could get there in one turn with PIT?

The travel table can also encode more complex behaviors:

19   35074   49
19  211032   49
19      74   66


The numbers over 1000 use an ad-hoc but powerful scheme to encode both probabilities and conditions on certain motions. This snippet says: If you’re in room 19 (hall of mt king) and you use motion word 49 (SW), you have a 35% chance of reaching room 74 (secret E/W canyon). Otherwise, if object 1011 (the snake) is also present here then you’ll reach room 32. Otherwise, you’ll reach room 74 (secret E/W canyon), which by the way you can invariably reach by using motion word 66 (SECRET). (Notice that travel table entries “fall through” in the same way as C switch cases.)

Meanwhile, room 32 is a special room with only one exit in the travel table:

32  19   1


Motion word 1 is a magic number that means “forced motion”; such exits are automatically taken after describing the room you’re in.

You are in the hall of the mountain king, with passages off in all
directions.
A huge green fierce snake bars the way!
> WEST
You can't get by the snake.
You're in hall of mt king.
A huge green fierce snake bars the way!


To the player, it looks like the game has rejected your attempt to move; but what’s actually happened at the mechanical level is that you successfully moved to a (lighted) room with the description “You can’t get by the snake,” and then immediately moved back to the Hall of the Mountain King following a forced motion.

Here’s another interesting use of the travel table: The vocabulary word BACK is grammatically a motion word, but it’s actually intercepted in the parser. When you say BACK, the game tries to move you back into the room you were in last turn, by substituting some other motion word for BACK. It scans the travel table to find all the exits from your current room, and sees if any of them lead into your previous room. To see this in action, go S twice from end of road to reach slit in streambed; then say HOUSE to move back to end of road; then say BACK. “You can’t get there from here,” because the direct connection between these two rooms is one-way. Of course this mechanic can also be used to create “in-universe” one-way connections as well, such as the steep incline north of the Giant Room.

### Movement in Castlequest

Castlequest’s movement system is much simpler. The first ten verbs are the compass directions; these are the primary way of navigating in Castlequest. All ten of those verbs are handled by the MOVE subroutine, which consults a hard-coded 10×100 array. (There are exactly 100 rooms in Castlequest.)

C          N  NE   E   SE  S  SW   W  NW  UP  DOWN
DATA W1 /0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  2,  0,  0,-29,
2         3,  0,  1,  0,  0,  0, -4,  0,  0,  3,
3        33,  0,  0,  0,  8,  0,  5,  0, -2,  0,


This says that from room 1 (the bedroom), you can exit to the west or down — no other directions! The exit for “down” is strange; the negative number indicates that some special handling is needed. So when you try to go DOWN from the bedroom, the game sets LROOM to 1 and ROOM to 29, just as usual, but then checks a ton of special cases. One of those cases is:

     IF ((ROOM .NE. 29 .OR. LROOM .NE.  1) .AND.
2    (ROOM .NE.  1 .OR. LROOM .NE. 29)) GOTO 621
IF (ROPE .EQ. 2) GOTO 103
WRITE(6,1006)
GOTO 106
106  ROOM = LROOM
LROOM = II
GOTO 25
1006 FORMAT('0  There is no way to go in that direction.')


So if you try to go DOWN when global variable ROPE isn’t set to 2 (which in-game means the rope is dangling out the window), you’ll get a bland error message and your ROOM will get reset to 1.

The main 10×100 array is supplemented by two more 100-element arrays, ENTER and LEAVE, which indicate whether the verbs IN and OUT work in the current room. These lookup tables don’t map to destinations, but rather to verb numbers — comparable, but not equivalent, to Adventure’s handling of the word BACK. When you’re in the bedroom and you say OUT, that gets remapped to verb 7 (WEST). When you’re in the library, IN gets remapped to verb 10 (DOWN), which then triggers its own special-case handling.

An odd effect of this mechanism is that the “level designer” can remap IN and OUT to verbs that aren’t directions at all. Holtzman did this exactly once — I guess just for the heck of it. Going IN from room 61 maps to verb 19 (FUCK)!

You are in the blue room.  The entire room is a deep
shade of royal blue.  Exits go north, south and east.
> N
You're in a maze of short and winding passages.
> NE
You're in a maze of winding, long passages.
> IN


If the ENTER mapping for the current room doesn’t exist, typing IN gives a bland error message. But if the LEAVE mapping for the current room doesn’t exist, OUT is remapped to BACK! Thus, if you go OUT to leave a room, and then type OUT again, you’ll generally find yourself right back IN; this confused the heck out of me, before I looked at the code.

Finally, when you type BACK (verb 40), the game tries to move you back into the room you were in last turn. Unlike in Adventure, this does not consult any travel table: BACK always succeeds, unless some unusual event has changed the value in variable LROOM. For example, when you exit the mirror maze into a random room, you can always say BACK to return to the maze, even when the maze isn’t ordinarily adjacent to your random room.

Verbs such as POOF and CROSS are handled in the same way as any other non-motion verb: with special-purpose codepaths. And CLIMB is merely a synonym for UP.

## The wandering monsters

Adventure has five dwarves that wander around the map and throw knives at you. Surprisingly, a large subset of Adventure’s codebase is dedicated to simulating these little guys. Each dwarf’s state is represented by a set of entries in three arrays (ODLOC, DLOC, DSEEN). Just like the player, each dwarf has a current location DLOC and a previous location ODLOC. Dwarves avoid doubling back on their own paths, but otherwise wander randomly through the cave, respecting the travel table. Each time the player moves, the dwarves also move. Whenever a dwarf winds up in the same room as the player, we set DSEEN and the dwarf starts preferentially following the player and throwing knives. Since there are five dwarves wandering randomly, it’s quite possible for the player to see messages like

There are 4 threatening little dwarves in the room with you!
3 of them throw knives at you!
2 of them get you!


The travel table can mark certain paths, such as the troll bridge, as “forbidden to dwarves.”

There is a sixth dwarf — the pirate — who gets special handling once he enters your room, but otherwise wanders according to the travel table just like any other dwarf. When the pirate moves into your room but you have no treasure to steal, there’s a 20% chance that “There are faint rustling noises from the darkness behind you.”

When you spot the first dwarf (the one who throws the axe and runs away), the game randomly kills between 0 and 2 of the dwarves, leaving only 3 to 5 of them alive (plus the pirate). Once you kill a dwarf, it never comes back; so you should need to kill only at most 5 dwarves in any single game of Adventure.

By the way, Luckett and Pike’s Adventure II (taxonomized as LUPI0440) grants three of the dwarves the ability to pick up and carry a single item as they wander, and also sometimes randomly revives dead dwarves.

The dwarf-movement parts of Adventure are one of the coolest parts of the implementation — that’s probably why Crowther bothered to write all that code — but they’re also the part that tends not to survive porting to other game engines. PLAT0550 keeps track of between 4 and 8 dwarves, but they don’t “wander” so much as “teleport to the player” at random times, until they’re all dead. MALM0350 doesn’t even bother to track a population size; there’s just a flag to tell whether the (one) dwarf is in your room, and when you kill the dwarf, it merely turns off that flag for a while.

### Castlequest’s werewolf and gnome

Castlequest uses the MALM0350 model for both of its wandering monsters. Every turn you’re in the castle, there’s about a 4% chance that the werewolf will show up. When it does, it sets the WOLF flag, meaning that it’ll stick to you forever, or until you kill it. There’s no way to shake it from your trail — not boating, not POOF-ing, not climbing ropes.

Likewise, every turn you’re in the cave, there’s about a 3% chance that the gnome will show up (setting the GNOME flag). The gnome’s description is an homage to Adventure

There is an ugly little gnome in the room with you!
He shoots a poisoned dart at you!
IT GETS YOU!!


— which is also a hint to the seasoned adventurer that the proper way to deal with gnomes is to THROW AXE. This gives you a reason to tote the axe while in the cave, and thus to have a good chance of discovering the secret of the master game. Neither the werewolf nor the gnome ever perma-die.

Castlequest will sometimes print “I think I hear footsteps behind you” — with probability 0.8% every time you move — unrelated to anything else going on in the game. (Remember, the werewolf and gnome don’t “move” the way Adventure’s pirate does; they just teleport in randomly.)

## Doors and windows

### Adventure’s PROP array

In Adventure, the PROP array holds one integer for each object in the game, both movable and immovable. This integer represents the “state” of the object. The default state is 0; some objects (such as the iron keys) never leave that state. The lamp has two possible states: PROP(LAMP)=0 when it’s off and PROP(LAMP)=1 when it’s on. The bear has four states: hungry, tame but chained, unchained, and dead. Each one has a different description.

These states are generally written via special handling in the code, but the travel table can encode reads against them. For example,

8  303009   3 19 30
8     593   3


indicates that typing any of ENTER, IN, DOWN in room 8 (depression) will lead to room 9 (below grate) only if PROP(3)=1 — that is, if object 3 (the grate) is in state 1 (open). Likewise, the path north of the Giant Room is open only if PROP(DOOR)=1.

### Castlequest’s DOOR array

In Castlequest, items don’t have “props”; there is no general-purpose way for an item to have state, and no general-purpose way to change the description of an item. Each stateful puzzle in the game is represented in the code by a named global variable; for example, the integer BAT may hold 0 (gone) or 1 (present); the integer ROPE may hold 0 (loose), 1 (tied to bed), 2 (out window), or 3 (tied to hook). (ROPE can also be -2 if it’s fallen out the window, but I’m not sure why that needed to be different from 0.)

The general-purpose array in _Castlequest_ is DOOR(100) — one integer per room. The game uses this array to track the state of at most one door per room. -2 means “the door will neither open nor close”; -1 means “I see no door here”; 0 means locked, 1 means closed, and 2 means open.

For example, DOOR(2), DOOR(6), DOOR(21), and DOOR(80) are all initially zero, because these rooms (the dim corridor, the kitchen, the attic, and the wine cellar) all contain locked doors. The code for locking, unlocking, opening, and closing these doors is mostly generic. Movement through these doors, on the other hand, must be handled via special cases (negative numbers) in the 10×100 travel array.

The library contains an initially open door, which can be locked, unlocked, opened, and closed generically. The same is true of the locked room (next to the dim corridor) and the brick wall (next to the kitchen). Of course, the game doesn’t “know” that these rooms’ DOOR entries are supposed to represent the two sides of the same actual door, so you might find that the door appears locked from one direction and open from the other. But since these rooms also aren’t hooked up to any special cases for movement, such a locked door won’t impede your travel.

You are in the upstairs hallway, a long corridor with passages
to the north, east, and west.  Stairs lead up and down.
> OPEN DOOR
The door will neither open nor close.
> EAST
You are in the library.
A copy of Shakespeare's "HAMLET" lies on the desk.
> OPEN DOOR
> CLOSE DOOR
OK
> LOCK DOOR
The door is locked.
> WEST
You're in the upstairs hallway.
> EAST
You are in the library.
> OPEN DOOR
The door is locked.


The windows in the bedroom and smoking room are handled by separate global variables WIND1 and WIND2, respectively, and don’t interact with the DOOR array at all. You might wonder why Castlequest bothers to make a whole 100-element array just to deal with four special doors. I don’t know. But the game does start off inside a house, where you might expect every room to have a door; maybe it initially seemed like simulating doors was going to be a big part of the game.

## The INVENTORY command

In Adventure, the PROP of an object tends to change its long description (when present in the current room), but never changes its name-when-inventoried. Rather than having separate items for “empty bottle” and “bottle of water,” Adventure simply has an item with name Small bottle and another slightly special item with name Water in the bottle; when you say FILL BOTTLE it places the latter in your inventory right next to the former. For the bird, it cheats even more: the short name of the bird is Little bird in cage, because anytime it’s in your inventory it is in the cage by definition.

In Castlequest, objects tend not to change their long descriptions; the lamp keeps its same description no matter whether it’s on or off. But items in your inventory can combine in interesting ad-hoc ways; for example, if you are carrying both the gun and the bullet, and the global GUN flag is true (meaning that you’ve loaded the gun), then INVENTORY will print

Bullet in gun


Silver bullet
Old gun


The way it accomplishes this is… local hacks in the INVENT subroutine. The gun and bullet are items 20 and 2 respectively:

IF (.NOT. GUN) GOTO 120
ITEMS(20) = 0
ITEMS( 2) = 0
WRITE(6,2000) 'Bullet in gun'


The short description of the bottle in Castlequest is Empty bottle; so, when you are also carrying object 5 (Blood in bottle), the inventory code will temporarily suppress the printing of object 18:

   IF (BOTTLE) ITEMS(18) = 0
[...]
DO 10 II=1,NITEMS
IF (ITEMS(II) .EQ. -1) WRITE(6,2000) OBJ(II)
IF (ITEMS(II) .EQ. -1) NUMB = NUMB + 1
10 CONTINUE
IF (BOTTLE) ITEMS(18) = -1


Incidentally, both Adventure and Castlequest make the same arbitrary decision to track “number of items carried by the player” separately from “location of each item.” In theory, the number of items carried by the player should always be exactly the same as the count of items in room -1. In practice, though, tracking these quantities individually means there’s no single source of truth, and the two quantities can get out of sync with each other. See “A bug in Adventure’s endgame” (2020-02-06). I haven’t explicitly found such a bug in Castlequest yet, but I’m sure it’s only a matter of time.

Castlequest’s combining-item hacks are pretty much only in the inventory code (except some paths related to the rope and grappling hook in the room-description code). If you’re carrying the loaded gun and you drop it, it magically unloads itself and you see the bullet and gun separately in the room description. The rope and grappling hook also tend to spontaneously disassemble; even the bottle of blood!

> INVENTORY
You are carrying the following object:
Blood in bottle
> DROP BOTTLE
OK
> LOOK
You are at the bottom of a towering spiral stairway.
A low passage exits south.
There is a small pool of blood here.
An empty bottle is discarded nearby.


## Conclusion

Oh, you expected a conclusion?

Well, it’s pretty neat how Castlequest invented its own solutions to certain problems without seeing Adventure’s. In some cases the games demonstrate convergent evolution (for example, how items in room number zero are “destroyed” and items in room number -1 are “in inventory”); in other cases they’re creatively divergent (such as Castlequest’s handling of IN and OUT, or Adventure’s simulationist handling of BACK).

Anyway, this probably concludes my series of Castlequest posts, at least for a little while. Revisit the first post here:

Posted 2021-03-21