# static constexpr unsigned long is C++’s “lovely little old French whittling knife”

There’s a meme going around (extracted from Mark Forsyth’s 2013 book The Elements of Eloquence) that postulates an unwritten rule of English:

Adjectives in English absolutely have to be in this order: opinion-size-age-shape-colour-origin-material-purpose Noun. So you can have a lovely little old rectangular green French silver whittling knife. But if you mess with that word order in the slightest you’ll sound like a maniac.

The existence of compound modifiers complicates matters: personally I would interpret “French silver knife” as meaning a knife composed of French silver, not a silver knife that was French. I’ve also never heard of a rectangular knife; but I think part of Forsyth’s point is that the word order is largely invariant regardless of whether the overall image makes sense. Consider Noam Chomsky’s nonsensical, but grammatical, “colorless green ideas” — would “green colorless ideas” feel just a bit less grammatical?

Over on Language Log Jason A. Quest observes that this rule ranks adjectives

in terms of how intrinsic and fundamental they are to the object, from least to most. “Whittling knife” is essentially a compound noun […] What it’s made of and where it comes from are unchangeable characteristics of it, so those have to be close. Working back from there the adjectives become more superficially descriptive and possibly changeable, and then finally subjective. You could even extend the rule to say that ownership (“Jimmy’s”) goes before all else, which is a fully extrinsic adjective.

(Commenter Martha points out that an “adjective” like “Jimmy’s” is in fact a possessive determiner, and indeed it is a written rule that possessive determiners should precede the entire noun phrase no matter what.)

(Commenter Hector adds that we see the most-fundamental-binds-tightest rule also in insults to masculinity: if you want to insult a guy, you call him an “ugly little whatever,” because “little” is the most salient insult; but if he’s tall then you reverse the order to “you big ugly whatever,” because “big” isn’t particularly insulting at all.)

## I thought this blog was about C++

C++, like English, gives us plenty of freedom to rearrange our adjectives without breaking the written grammar of the language. But in C++, as in English, the rule of “most important descriptor binds tightest” still applies. Consider these two declarations (Godbolt):

static inline constexpr unsigned long long int x = 42;
long int long inline unsigned constexpr static y = 42;


C++ considers these declarations equally grammatical. But which one would you rather see in a code review? I hope it’s the first one!

C++’s rule for things-that-come-before-the-identifier is pretty amorphous. [dcl.spec.general] simply lists all the possible decl-specifier keywords — friend, virtual, explicit, inline, constexpr, typedef… — and lets you put them together in any order you choose, just as English allows you to put together adjectives in any order you choose. This lax formal grammar was inherited from C89: C allowed long unsigned const x, so it remained valid in C++.

But when you actually write C++ code, I’d appreciate it if you’d channel Mark Forsyth and think of decl-specifiers as absolutely having to be in this order: attributes-friendness-storage-constness-virtualness-explicitness-signedness-length-type Identifier.

Signedness-length-type: Write unsigned long, not long unsigned. Observe that unsigned long int is intimately related to long int in a way that unsigned int and unsigned long int are not: there are places where signedness is ignored by the language, and there’s a make_signed type trait but no “make_long” trait. So longness is in a real sense more “fundamental,” more “important,” than signedness.

As for the “type” part: I write unsigned, not unsigned int; and unsigned long, not unsigned long int. But if I ever had to use C++’s long double type, you can bet I’d write long double and not double long!

Explicitness: All of your constructors and conversion operators should always be explicit, except for the ones you intend to call implicitly (i.e., your copy and move constructors, plus rare special cases like string(const char *)). So my mental model of explicit is as a keyword that says nothing more than “Look out, reader, here comes a constructor or conversion operator!” It’s essentially part of the name of the member function, and belongs right next to the identifier.

constexpr explicit operator bool() const;
//~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
// This whole thing is the "name"

explicit constexpr operator bool() const;
//~~~~~~           ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
// Splitting up the "name" obfuscates the code


Virtualness: Observe that virtual affects the semantics of a function a lot more than constexpr does. It also conveys more information in the strictly information-theoretic sense: the average class (that uses virtual at all) tends to have some virtuals and some non-virtuals, whereas the average class tends to have pretty much all of its methods be constexpr or else none of them be constexpr. It’s pretty common to take an existing class like

struct S {
S(int);
virtual int do_foo();
bool bar() const;
};


and slap a big streak of constexpr paint down the left margin:

struct S {
constexpr S(int);
constexpr virtual int do_foo();  // since C++20
constexpr bool bar() const;
};


Nobody does that with virtual (and if they do, they need to stop).

Constness: C++20 introduces a lot more constness-related keywords besides constexpr, but at least so far they are all mutually exclusive: any given declaration can be constexpr OR consteval OR constinit but never more than one at a time.

C++11 replaced the “static const” idiom with the “static constexpr” idiom:

static const bool a = ...;
static constexpr bool b = ...;


and I hope nobody’s out there using the “constexpr static” ordering!

Notice that west const style falls naturally out of this “important things bind tighter” rule. The style shown above de-emphasizes the constness of bool b, it’s true; but that’s better than a style that de-emphasizes the boolness of const b!

Now, constinit is a little weird. It fills the same grammatical niche as const and constexpr (and now consteval), so you’d think we should also write

static constinit bool c = ...;


But actually, I could totally see putting constinit before the storage class:

constinit static bool d = ...;


The more salient thing about d is that it’s not a const variable; you can modify it at runtime. Subordinate to that, incidentally, it happens to be initialized with a compile-time constant value. Just as with constexpr, I could see someone slapping a big streak of constinit-colored paint down the left margin of their global variable definitions, regardless of storage class. So maybe constinit is better off further left, at least in some cases. (Ralph Waldo Emerson once said that constinitcy was the hobgoblin of little minds. I agree — at least in some cases.)

Storage class: The C++ storage-class specifiers are extern, static, thread_local, and mutable; to which we can add inline for historical reasons. As with static const, there’s a long C tradition of writing static inline (not inline static). And, re our general rule of “more important adjectives bind tighter,” we observe that the inline-ness of a function in practice matters even less (to the caller) than its constexpr-ness. So:

static inline constexpr int f() { ... }


Indeed, between constexpr inline and inline constexpr, the C++ Standard itself prefers inline constexpr.

I rarely see static inline together anymore in C++. Static free functions don’t benefit from inline. For static member functions, I recommend putting inline on the definition, never on the declaration (this reduces clutter in the class body, and also reduces churn when you move a member function from the .h file into the .cpp file or vice versa); whereas the static keyword goes on the declaration inside the class body, and is grammatically forbidden to go on the definition.

But in C++17 we got static inline member variables, which can be initialized directly in the class body even if they’re non-const or non-scalar. This may cause the wild population of static inline to rebound slightly.

Friendness: To befriend an entity in C++, you copy-and-paste its declaration directly into the body of your class, and then you slap a friend keyword on the front.

constexpr unsigned int f();

class Secretive {
friend constexpr unsigned int f();
};


Slapping the friend keyword into the middle of the declaration would just be weird.

Unfortunately, to befriend a template you must put the template-head (if any) in front of the friend keyword:

template<class T> int f(T);

class Secretive {
friend template<class T> int f(T);  // invalid, sadly
template<class T> friend int f(T);  // OK
template<class T> int friend f(T);  // technically valid, but please don't

friend int f(auto);  // valid since C++20 (but probably don't?)
};


Finally, attributes: C++11 attributes are not decl-specifiers, and therefore the formal grammar requires that they come either first-of-all or last-of-all:

[[nodiscard]] constexpr int f() { return 1; }  // OK
constexpr int f [[nodiscard]]() { return 1; }  // valid, but please don't


If you accidentally place an attribute in the middle of your decl-specifier-seq, the compiler will give you a diagnostic if you’re lucky, and then proceed to ignore it. (Clang and ICC error; GCC warns; MSVC doesn’t even warn. Ironically, if you put the attribute in the right place, ICC will ignore it anyway. Godbolt.)

constexpr [[nodiscard]] int f() { return 1; }  // invalid

int main() { f(); }  // no diagnostic here because f is not a nodiscard function


By the way, constinit was originally proposed as an attribute, and probably should have remained one; it was changed to a keyword only after discussion within WG21.

## What about the stuff at the end of a declaration?

C++’s very lax decl-specifier-seq was inherited from C. But the idea of putting stuff after the function parameter list was a C++ invention, so C++ has been able to enforce stricter formal rules about the ordering of those clauses. The relevant grammar is given in the standard under parameters-and-qualifiers and member-declarator, and it goes pretty rigidly like this:

• Function name and parameter list
• Cv-qualifier
• Ref-qualifier
• Exception specification (noexcept)
• Trailing return type
• override, final, or requires
• Body, =0, =default, or =delete

For example:

auto f() const & noexcept -> int override = 0;

int g() && noexcept(false) requires true = delete;


Notice that as a general rule, we work toward completing the function’s type first, because the function type is the most important thing. (Noexceptness became part of the function type in C++17.) Only once we’ve completed the function type do we move on to lesser properties such as its constraints and whether it is a virtual overrider. This general rule explains the awkward not-so-trailing placement of the trailing return type:

// OK, looks great
auto f() noexcept
-> std::conditional_t<B, X, Y>;

// Awkward
auto g()
-> std::conditional_t<B, X, Y>
override;

// Awkward
auto h()
-> std::conditional_t<B, X, Y>
requires (N < 7);


Virtual functions can’t be constrained, so you’ll never see the override or final keyword coexist with a requires-clause. Although it’s possible to write either final override or override final, you shouldn’t; just write final alone. (Vaguely related: “A hole in Clang’s -Wsuggest-override (2021-02-19).)

C++’s syntax expands, gaslike, to fill the available space: int h() requires true && override is also a valid declaration, if a constexpr bool override is visible in the current scope. Fortunately, int h() requires true && noexcept(false) is invalid: the constraints in a requires-clause must all be primary-expressions, and noexcept(false) is a unary-expression. See “Why do we require requires requires?” (2019-01-15).

Guidelines mentioned or alluded to in this post:

• Attributes-friendness-storage-constness-virtualness-explicitness-signedness-length-type Identifier.

• Make every constructor explicit (except for copy, move, and very special cases).

• Make every conversion operator explicit: especially explicit operator bool() const.

• For a virtual function, use exactly one of virtual, override, or final.

• Indent trailing requires-clauses the same way you’d indent trailing return types.

• West const.

Posted 2021-04-03